The growth of a seed into a young plant or a seedling is called germination.
Examples of the conditions (factors) that plants need to germinate
Steps of Germination
When conditions are right the seed starts to take in water.
As water is taken in, the seed swells bigger and bigger until the coat splits apart.
Air can then get to the seed. So, the oxygen in the air helps the baby plant burn the food packed inside the seed.
Burning the food produces energy. As a result, the baby plant uses the energy to grow.
A tiny root grows downwards whereas a shoot begins to grow upwards.
The shoot develops and reaches toward the light while the root system develops deep in the soil.
The cotyledon later become the first leaves of the seedling when the seed germinates.
Tiny leaves sprout at the end of the shoot letting Photosynthesis to take place. These are called foliage leaves. They give the baby plant energy, until it gets its own green leaves to photosynthesise.
The primary root grows longer and thicker together with the secondary roots. The leaves grow larger.
Finally, More and more leaves grow and the stem becomes thicker and stronger.