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Facts about India

Official name Republic of India
Shape Triangular
Capital New Delhi
Population About 1 billion
Currency Indian rupee
Rank (position) among countries in size 7th (Seventh largest country in the world)
Rank among countries in population 2nd (Second highest number of people)
Major cities 1. Kolkata (Earlier – Calcutta)2. Delhi3. Mumbai (Earlier – Bombay)
Number of languages used 16 main languages and some other languages
Main languages Hindi, Urdu, Tamil etc.
A famous plains The Northern Plains
A famous plateau The Deccan plateau
A famous desert The Thar Desert
A popular tourist area Goa
Number of seasons Three


What is a continent?

A massive area of land on Earth is called a continent.


What is a country?

A land with its own name, government, flag and sometimes money is called a country.


What is population?

Number of people in a given area is called population.


What is a tributary?

A river or stream that flows into a larger river is called a tributary.


What is a plateau?

A wide area of flat land high up in hills or mountains is called a plateau.


The Himalayas


The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. The peaks are covered in snow and ice all the year round. The lower slopes are covered in forests.


The Northern Plains


Most of the population of India lives on the Northern plains.

Following rivers flow across the Northern Plains.

  • The Ganges
  • River Brahmaputra
  • Tributaries of Indus River

The capital, New Delhi and many of the great cities of India are on the Northern Plains.


 The Deccan Plateau


The Deccan Plateau has farming and grazing land.

Following are the rich resources in the Deccan Plateau.

  • Coal
  • Iron ore
  • Oil

Bauxite (from which aluminium is produced)


The Thar Desert


The Thar Desert is hot and sandy. It is largely empty of spaces.




It has beautiful sandy beaches and coconut palms.



Seasons in India


a)   December to March

Cold winds blow south from the Himalayas. These bring cool, dry conditions to all parts of the country except for the far south and west. In the far south and west it is hot and humid all the year round.


b)   April to May (Spring)

The wind changes direction. Much of India has little or no rain at this time. It gets hotter and hotter. Finally the monsoons rains come.


What are monsoons rains?

Monsoons rains are strong winds in or around the Indian Ocean that bring heavy rains in summer.


c) June to early July

Warm, wet winds sweep in from the Indian Ocean. It usually rains heavily for the next two months. If the monsoons rains don’t arrive, there is drought and famine.


What is drought?

Drought is a very long period without rain.


What is famine?

Famine is a severe shortage of food occurs due to droughts.


d) October to November

The winds change direction again. Winter returns, sometimes with violent tropical storms.